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Specific Learning & Developmental Conditions

Sensory Motor Integration Dysfunction/ Sensory Processing Disorder

What are the signs and symptoms of Sensory Motor Integration Dysfunction or Sensory Processing Disorder? Child displays the following signs and symptoms: behaviour issues: distractible, withdrawing when touched, avoid certain textures, clothes, foods fearful reaction to ordinary movement activities, like playground play sensitive to loud noise may feel nausea and/or disorientation when they move, when their feet leave the ground,…

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

What are the signs and symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)? Some children with ADHD or ADD develop ODD. The child with ODD is usually defiant, does not follow the rules and is hostile towards everyone including their family members and people in authority. Below are the signs and symptoms of ODD: display frequent temper tantrums always arguing with adults…

Learning and Developmental Difficulties Resulted from Other Chromosome-Related Conditions

Signs and symptoms of learning and developmental difficulties resulted from other common chromosome-related conditions: Triple X syndrome a genetic disorder that affects females taller than average height is the most typical physical feature have intelligence in the normal range, but possibly slightly lower when compared with siblings vertical folds of skin that cover the inner corners of the eyes (epicanthal…

Kabuki Syndrome

Kabuki syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with a range of characteristics, including intellectual disability, distinctive facial features and skeletal abnormalities. The most common characteristics include: distinctive set of facial features, including widely spaced eyes, low-set or prominent ears, exaggerated eyebrow arch, flattened nose tip and a very high palate or cleft palate short stature skeletal abnormalities, such as scoliosis,…

Intellectual Disability

What are the signs and symptoms of Intellectual Disability? Child displays the following signs and symptoms: has below average intelligence as compared to their peers take a long time to learn new skills delayed in achieving milestones for most, if not all, of these developmental domains: gross and fine motor skills speech and language cognition social communication and self-concept daily…

Global Developmental Delay (GDD)

What are the signs and symptoms of Global Development Delay? Child displays the following signs and symptoms: delayed in achieving milestones for most, if not all, of these developmental domains gross and fine motor skills speech and language cognition social communication and self-concept daily activities or self-help skills impairment of most of the domains results in the delay in development…

Dysgraphia (Writing Disability)

What are the signs and symptoms of Dysgraphia? Child displays the following signs and symptoms poor handwriting (messy) and fine motor skills difficulty in forming letters or spacing words in writing awkward or painful pencil grip struggle to follow a line or stay within the lines when writing poor in sentence structure when writing but not speaking big gap between…

Dyspraxia (Motor & Coordination Difficulties)

What are the signs and symptoms of Dyspraxia? poor balance, may appear clumsy or may stumble frequently poor organisational skills – need visual reminders, poor memory, find planning difficult poor gross motor skills – displayed in life skills, activities that require coordination weak fine motor skills – manipulation difficulties, messy handwriting poor memory and attention skills, easily distracted & fidgety,…

Dyslexia (Reading & Spelling Difficulties)

Did You Know? Many children are misdiagnosed as having Dyslexia when their root difficulties go unnoticed or excluded under categorical/ label-focused assessment. Generally, auditory processing (processing sounds), and/ or combined with other difficulties such as spatial challenges may manifest symptoms that look like Dyslexia. Auditory Processing (AP) + Visual Processing (VP) + Spatial Difficulties + Reading Difficulties = May manifest…

Dyscalculia (Difficulties in Mathematics)

What are the signs and symptoms of Dyscalculia? Child displays the following signs and symptoms: has difficulty counting objects just by looking at them omit or skip number while counting has difficulty differentiating similar sizes or measurements poor understanding of Math concepts like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division reverse or misread numerical symbols or numbers e.g. read ‘+’ as ‘x’,…

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Did You Know? Many children are misdiagnosed as having ASD or go undetected when co-existing root learning difficulties are ignored as LDs are viewed rigidly in categories or isolated labels only. Generally, sensory motor integration dysfunction and/ or combined with auditory processing (processing sounds) and/ or visual processing with social communication difficulties may be mistaken as autism. Sensory Motor Integration…

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)

Auditory Processing Disorder happens when a child has difficulty analysing or comprehending the information that he hears. A child’s hearing may be perfectly fine, however, the auditory input received may be interpreted or processed incorrectly by the brain. Child may experience difficulty with auditory processing skills in the area of phonological awareness, auditory discrimination, auditory memory, auditory sequencing, auditory blending,…

Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder [AD(H)D]

Did You Know?   Many children are misdiagnosed as having ADD/ ADHD when their root difficulties go unnoticed or excluded under categorical/ label-focused assessment.  Generally, sensory motor integration combined with auditory processing (processing sounds) difficulties may manifest symptoms that look like ADD/ ADHD.         Sensory Motor Integration (SMI) + Auditory Processing (AP) Difficulties = May be misled to ADD/ ADHD + wrong…